The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mids to the late s, a pianist, theater organist—or even, in large cities, a small orchestra—would often play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from sheet music, or improvisation. The term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something.
Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, and the industry had moved fully into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue, music and sound effects. The vast majority of the silent films produced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are considered lost.
According to a September report published by the United States Library of Congress, some 70 per cent of American silent feature films fall into this category. There are numerous reasons for this number being so high; most were destroyed on purpose, but many others have been lost unintentionally.
Out of a desire to free up storage space, film studios would often destroy silent films decades after their theatrical runs, perceiving them to have lost their cultural relevance and economic value. Due to the fragile nature of the nitrate film stock on which many silent films were recorded, many have deteriorated or have been lost in accidents such as fires because nitrate is highly flammable and can spontaneously combust when stored improperly. Many such films not completely destroyed survive only partially, or in badly damaged prints. Some lost films, such as London After Midnight , have been the subject of considerable interest by film collectors and historians.
At this event, Edison set the precedent that all exhibitions should be accompanied by an orchestra. Musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons. However, depending on the size of the exhibition site, musical accompaniment could drastically change in scale. Small town and neighborhood movie theatres usually had a pianist.
Beginning in the mids, large city theaters tended to have organists or ensembles of musicians. Massive theater organs, which were designed to fill a gap between a simple piano soloist and a larger orchestra, had a wide range of special effects. Musical scores for early silent films were either improvised or compiled of classical or theatrical repertory music.
Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which included a cue sheet with the film. These sheets were often lengthy, with detailed notes about effects and moods to watch for. Starting with the mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D. When organists or pianists used sheet music, they still might have added improvisational flourishes to heighten the drama on screen.
At the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians, at least in the United States. However, the introduction of talkies coupled with the roughly simultaneous onset of the Great Depression was devastating to many musicians. Fatty has been dragged along to Coney Island by his wife who insists they spend their time together on the beach.
Getting inspiration from a dog digging a hole in the sand, Fatty ditches his wife by burying himself in the sand then making a run for the amusement park as she searches for him. Finding he has no money, Rival gains entry to the park by hiding in a barrel and follows Pretty Girl and Old Friend around the park. When Old Friend returns with the ice cream, Fatty pretends he got them for her in order to impress her which it does.
Old Friend furiously threatens Fatty, but Fatty kicks a nearby policemen in the rear and makes him think Old Friend did it leading to the latter being arrested. Fatty and Pretty Girl next go for a ride on the log flumes but the force of the impact upon hitting the water sends both flying into the surrounding pool. Rival saves Pretty Girl and Fatty but is immediately knocked accidentally into the pool by Fatty who, seeing that Rival can swim and will not drown, once again walks off with Pretty Girl.
Spotting his wife looking for him, Fatty takes Pretty Girl into a nearby boathouse and the two dress up Fatty as a woman and Pretty Girl in a new dress and a long wig to avoid detection before heading to the beach. Old Friend finds himself attracted to Fatty dressed up as a woman and flirts with him before Rival arrives on the scene and reveals that the woman is in fact Fatty.
Furious, Old Friend chases Fatty to the sea where they begin to fight. Pretty Girl, realizing that Old Friend is a sleazy womanizer and Fatty has a wife, decides to return to Rival and the two run off down the beach together. They are taken to jail but before they can be locked up they overpower all of the cops and throw them in the jail cell. Before Fatty can leave he receives a furious dressing down from his wife until he can take no more and throws her in the jail cell as well. However, just after making this pact two attractive women walk past them and the two gleefully give chase.
Award-winning Ukrainian pianist Liana Paniyeva currently resides in Boston. In the United States in , Ms. In , Ms. Paniyeva was awarded the E. Most recently, Ms. In the March of Ms. Paniyeva was accepted with a full tuition scholarship to the Manhattan School of Music to study with Olga Kern, however in the June the admission office was unable to provide that scholarship.
Currently Ms Paniyeva resides in Boston. Andante Variation 1. Poco piu mosso Variation 2. Tempo di Minuetto Variation 4. Andante Variation 5. Allegro ma non tanto Variation 6. Vivace Variation 8. Adagio misterioso Variation 9. Un poco piu mosso Variation Allegro scherzando Variation Allegro vivace Variation Agitato Intermezzo Variation Andante come prima Variation Meno mosso Variation Allegro con brio Variation Piu mosso. Agitato Variation Piu mosso Coda. Promenade 1st No. When Hartmann died in St.
Petersburg in at the age of 41, the composer was crushed. Mussorgsky attended the show, where he saw the varied images that became the basis for Pictures of an Exhibition. Mussorgsky transforms it into a miniature tone poem about Baba Yaga, the legendary Russian witch who devoured the souls of children.
Pictures at an Exhibition comes to a close with rich, booming chords which evoke bells. It remained relatively little known until Ravel made a colorful orchestration of it in , and in this form it has enjoyed even greater popularity than the original. An innovator in the field of sacred music, Wesley blended his passion for music and liturgy at the Yale School of Music and Institute of Sacred Music, and went on to receive an Artist Diploma in Organ Performance from the Oberlin Conservatory.
As both a solo artist and a collaborator, his performances have been heard across the United States, Canada, and Europe. He was recently awarded 2nd Prize at the Sursa American Organ Competition and maintains an active performance schedule. Wesley is passionate about helping young musicians achieve their greatest aspirations, and serves regularly as a competition juror, and teaches students through private lessons and public masterclasses. Soprano Maria Ferrante maintains a full schedule of performances on both the local and international stage.
Her name has become familiar to audiences world over. Ferrante] known for her lilting soprano voice and probing mind…brings a supple and colorful approach to a broad variety of repertoire. Maria opened the season of the Newport Music Festival. She is a vivid and active recitalist, working locally with numerous ensembles both in Massachusetts and nationally. When I finished, the room was quiet.
And by special invitation, she received lessons from the renowned soprano, Elly Ameling. She later continued her studies in Beijing to discover aspects of bel canto from master, Jiang Jou. An engaging, enthusiastic teacher and coach, Maria has taught Vocal Master Classes throughout and New England and New York and offers unique and personalized strategies for her students.
Subsequently, he has performed widely in the United States and in Europe. Brett was the recipient of a Thomas J. Watson fellowship for organ study in Paris during which he presented recitals at Notre Dame Cathedral and at the Church of St. In addition to his musical endeavors, Brett is an avid rock climber, practices Ashtanga yoga daily, and is a vociferous reader of books.
Turn, turn, fine wooden horses, turn a hundred turns, turn a thousand turns, turn often and go on always, turn, turn to the sound of the oboes. The all red-faced child and the mother quite white, the boy in black and the girl in pink, the one pursuing and the other posing, each one spending his Sunday penny. Turn, turn, horses of their hearts, while all around your turning squints the sly eye of the pickpocket turn to the sound of the victorious cornet. It is astonishing how it intoxicates you to go around this way in this foolish circle, nothing in your tummy and an ache in your head, not feeling well and heaps of fun.
Turn, wooden horses, with no need ever to use spurs to command you to gallop around, turn, turn, with no hope of hay. And hurry, horses of their souls Already hear the supper bell, the night that is falling and chasing the troop of merry drinkers, famished by their thirst. Turn, turn!
The velvet sky is slowly dressed with golden stars. The church bell tolls a mournful toll. Turn, to the merry beating of drums. The white moon shines in the woods From each branch comes a voice From beneath the bough Oh, beloved! The pond is reflecting deeply mirrored Silhouette of the black willow tree Where the wind weeps. Let us dream! A vast and tender appeasement Made iridescent with the light of the moon, Seems to descend from the heavens.
My beauty, will you keep your word to me? Open your heart to my love. Open your heart, oh my angel to my passion, So that a dream may enchant your dreams. I wish to recover my soul, As a flower opens to the sun! But the day of farewells will come. The women are bound to weep And curious men seek the horizons, which entice them! And on the day the great ships, Leaving the port, which recedes in the distance Shall feel their mass held-back By the soul of the distant cradles. Refrain from singing, lovely one, in my presence Your melodies of sorrowful Georgia Remind me of another life and another distant shore Your song reminds me of the Steppes, the night and the moonlight And the features of a maiden, sad and far away!
I Forgot the distant sweet apparition but Having seen you and you sing It reminds me and I see it anew. Do Not sing to me, my dear, The songs of Georgia They remind me of another life And of distant shores. It is fine here, Se from far away the river is aflame The meadows are sprinkled with a flowery carpet The clouds are white No one is here Here, there is silence Here are God and I alone Flowers and the old pine tree And you, my dream. A fisherman with his rod stood on the bank, oh boy! And saw with cold blood how the fish swam. As long as the water stays clear, I thought with silent wish, He will not catch this fish!
But finally the time was too long for the thief, He muddied-up the brook and before I knew, His rod was jerking and The little fish flapped at the end of it, And I with my blood boiling, Looked upon the deceived one! It is the father with his child; He has the child well in his arms He grasps him securely. He holds him warm. Very beautiful games I will play with you; Many beautiful flowers are on the shore, My mother has many golden garments. My daughters will give you anything you desire; my daughters lead the nocturnal dance, and will rock and dance and sing you to sleep.
The father is horrified, he rides like the wind, He holds in his arms the agonizing child. He reaches the courtyard with effort and distress; In his arms the child Is dead. Beloved Beauty Late autumn fog and cold dreams Cove the mountains and valley; A storm has robbed the trees of their leaves, And they look spectral and bare. Only one solidary tree stands full Wet from nostalgic tears, it seems, Nodding its green head.
Ah, my heart is like a wilderness And that tree that I see there Summer-green, that is your image Beloved, beautiful one. It once happened that the nightingale Sang the whole night through; From its sweet note Echoing and re-echoing The roses have sprung forth. The Nightingale It once happened that the nightingale Has sung the whole night through; From its sweet note Echoing and re-echoing The roses have sprung forth.
See it? He is coming! I stay upon the edge of the hill And I wait a long time but I do not grow weary of the long wait. And leaving from the crowded city, A man, a little speck Climbing the hill. Who is it? And as he arrives What will he say? What will he say? He will call Butterfly from the distance I without answering Stay hidden A little to tease him, A little as to not die. All this will happen, I promise you this Hold your fears — I with secure faith will wait for him.
Oh yes, yes, I really want to go there! And if I love him in vain I will go to the old bridge And throw myself into the river Arno! Two knee levers: una corda, dampers. XVI, No. XIX, No. GG-g 3 5 octaves. Three hand stops: dampers bass , buff, dampers treble. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October ; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68 , ed. Portable grand piano by Davison and Redpath, London, Serial no.
X, No. III, No. Grand piano by Vincenzio Sodi, Florence, Fraudulently rebuilt as a three-manual harpsichord by Leopoldo Franciolini, Florence, ca. Brown, ed. Square piano, Germany, ca. Two knee levers: dampers, buff mechanism incomplete. Paul, Minnesota, June , pp.
Sabine K. XXIV , p. Two knee levers: dampers, moderator. Square piano, South or Central Germany, ca. Prellmechanik with intermediate lever, without escapement. Two knee levers: buff, dampers. Gift of the Ralph K. Ritchie Family, Kent, Connecticut, Larson Collection, XXIII , pp.
Grand piano by Matthew and William Stodart, London, Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Ex colls. Grand piano by Ferdinand Hofmann, Vienna, ca. Knee lever: dampers. Hand stop: moderator. Harp-shaped piano by Gottfried Maucher, Konstanz, Germany, Two hand stops: moderator, harp mechanism incomplete. XXVII , pp. Square piano by George Astor, 79 Cornhill, London, ca. Two hand stops: buff, dampers.
Arrangers: › Dvorak, Antonin Original (1) From Bohemia's Forest, Ze Sumavy, Op. 68/B. No. 5: Silent Woods [composer's transcription] - full score. From Bohemia's Forest, Ze Sumavy, Op. 68/B. - No. 5: Silent Woods [composer's transcription]. Format: Kindle Edition; File Size: KB; Print Length: 1 pages; Publisher: mehokojyja.tk (25 April ); Sold by: Amazon Asia-Pacific Holdings.
Square piano by Robert Marr "from London," Edinburgh, ca. Gift of Maria Norton, Muscatine, Iowa, Grand piano by James Ball, London, ca. One pedal now missing : dampers. Gift of David R. Bolton, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Square piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. Gift of Ruby Schieck, Sacramento, California, FF-f 4 6 octaves. Seven pedals: una corda, harp, bassoon, dampers, strong moderator, medium moderator, and Janissary bells and drum. Restoration funds gift of Stella Anker, Vermillion.
XXI, No. Grand piano by Michael Rosenberger, Vienna, ca. Instrument shortened to about half its original length, but keyboard and hammer action are in nearly pristine condition. Orphica portable piano attributed to Joseph Klein, Vienna, ca. XXV, No. Square piano by Clementi and Co. Gift of Shirley Stein, Springfield, Pennsylvania, Upright grand piano by Clementi and Co. CC-c 4 6 octaves. Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Transfer from Harvard University, Cambridge, Lyraflugel by Johann Christian Schleip, Berlin, ca.
Three knee levers: una corda, bassoon, dampers. One pedal: dampers. Bunker Clark , Grand piano by Nannette Streicher und Sohn, Vienna, Serial nos. Three pedals: una corda, due corde, dampers. Downstriking action, patented by Johann Baptist Streicher in One pedal on left side : damper. Ringley Fund, Square piano by Geronimo Bordas, Barcelona, ca.
One knee lever possibly replacing an original pedal to raise the dampers. German-type action Prellmechanik with brass Kapseln without escapement. Two pedals missing : dampers, harp or bassoon? Standard English-type double action.
Grand piano by Ignace Pleyel, Paris, Le Baron R. Compensation-tube frame, invented by James Thom and William Allen. Euphonicon harp-piano by F. Beale and Company, Regent Street, London, ca. Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter , Vol. AAA-a 4 7 octaves.
Viennese action. Two pedals: shift una corda , dampers. Grand piano by Erard, Paris, Gift of David Moore, Jacksonville, Texas, Cabinet piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. Gift of Maximiliaan Rutten, New York, Grand piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. Gift of Jean Rankin, Anaconda, Montana, Upright piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca.
Cottage upright model. AA-a 4 85 notes. Upright piano by C. Oehler, Stuttgart, ca. Two pedals: soft half-blow , dampers. Gift of Jan Brown, Wayne, Nebraska, Semi-grand piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. Upright piano by Stephen Hartley, London and Halifax, after Gift of Mark E.
Muchow, Parker, Colorado, in honor of his brother, Todd Muchow, Upright piano by J. Shepherd, London, ca. Upright piano by Karl Hiller, Berlin, ca. Distributed by Aengenheyster, Ltd. Pianos American in chronological order NMM Square piano by Charles Albrecht, Philadelphia, ca. One hand stop: dampers. Rickers, Broadway, New York, ca. Gift of Marilynn L. Collins, Flossmoor, Illinois, in memory of her father, Wyman H. Carey, pianist, Gift of Edith M. Square piano by Alpheus Babcock "for R. Mackay," Boston, ca.
Pedal: dampers. Gift of Jerry L. Square piano by Alpheus Babcock "for John G. Klemm," Boston, ca. John G. Klemm was a Philadelphia music publisher and dealer. Purchase funds in memory of John Randolph Waltner , Sioux Falls, from his family and friends, Square piano by Emilius N. Scherr, Philadelphia, ca. Gift of Carey Howlett, Williamsburg, Virginia, Square piano by Chickering and Mackays, Boston, Two pedals: dampers and treble dampers.
Square piano by Knabe, Gaehle, and Co.
Four pedals: swell, dampers, moderator, bellows. Gift of Patricia K. Moore, Raleigh, North Carolina, Square piano by J. Fischer, New York, ca. Gift of Dr. Thomas Eyres, Vermillion, CC-C 5 7 octaves. Three pedals: moderator, bass? Gift of Helen Dorothea and Paul S. Mefford, Laurens, Iowa, XXII, No. Two pedals: dampers, una corda. Brown action. XX, No. Square piano by William Knabe and Company, Baltimore, ca. Square piano by Haines Brothers, New York, ca.
Concert grand piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, Upright piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Gift of Roy F. Kehl, Evanston, Illinois, Upright piano by Decker Brothers, New York, ca. Square piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, Concert grand piano by Chickering and Sons, Boston, ca. Three pedals: una corda, bass dampers, dampers. Upright piano "giraffe" by Schimmel and Nelson, Faribault, Minnesota, ca.
Square piano by William Knabe and Company, Baltimore, VIII, No. Three pedals: quarter blow, half blow, dampers. Lenox vertical piano action. Gift of G. William Eibert, Alexandria, Virginia, Spinet piano by Wurlitzer, Chicago, ca. Three pedals: half blow, bass dampers, dampers. Pipe Organs in chronological order NMM Chest organ by Johannes Jacob Hannss, northern Germany, ca.
Single manual 45 keys; short octave , hand-operated bellows. Six stops; pipes. Gall Switzerland , Single manual, tracker action, C-c3 49 keys. Case exterior painted in traditional style of the Toggenburger valley. Gilded carvings in front of pipes and at top of marbled cornices. Stop list:. Nina G. Gold stencilled signature on front of nameboard same text handwritten on back of nameboard : Built , by Chris t Dieffenbach, Berks Co. Single manual, tracker action, C-d3 51 keys. Six original stops; three stops and pedalboard added by Thomas Dieffenbach in Polychromed case pipes painted by Thomas Dieffenbach's nephew, Jacob Dieffenbach.
Dedicated October 16, Larson Fund and J. Laiten Weed Estate, Raymond J. Chamber organ by Henry Erben, New York, Compass: C to c 4 5 octaves. The stops are controlled by two pedals to be held down by the player's left foot. The right pedal works the feeder bellows. Gift of the Metropolitan Museum of Art,